In a nutshell, the first step of grounded theory is open coding, when you take your textual data and break it up into discrete parts, axial coding is when you draw connections between your codes, and selective coding is when you select one central category that connects all the codes from your analysis and captures the …

What is axial coding in qualitative research?

Axial Coding Definition



With axial coding in qualitative research, you read over the codes and their underlying data to find how they can be grouped and abstracted into categories. These categories could be created by abstracting out an existing code or developing new concepts that encompass several different codes.

What is open coding in qualitative analysis?

Open coding in grounded theory method is the analytic process by which concepts (codes) to the observed data and phenomenon are attached during qualitative data analysis. It is one of the ‘procedures’ for working with text as characterized by Strauss (1987) and Strauss and Corbin (1990).

What is open coding in research?

Open coding is an essential methodological tool for qualitative data analysis that was introduced in grounded theory research. Open coding refers to the initial interpretive process by which raw research data are first systematically analyzed and categorized.

What is axial coding method?

Axial coding is a qualitative research technique that involves relating data together in order to reveal codes, categories, and subcategories ground within participants’ voices within one’s collected data. In other words, axial coding is one way to construct linkages between data.

What is an example of axial coding?

Quote from video: Next comes axial coding where you draw connections between the codes you developed in open coding. Group your codes into categories these categories become the axes that tie your codes.

What is the difference between open and focused coding?

Open coding involves allowing codes to emerge from the dataset. Codes must be clearly defined before focused coding can begin, so the researcher applies them in the same way to each unit of data.

What are the different types of coding in qualitative research?

Methods of coding qualitative data fall into two categories: automated coding and manual coding. You can automate the coding of your qualitative data with thematic analysis software.

Is open coding inductive or deductive?

Quote from the video:
Quote from video: So deductive coding is a top-down approach to coding. This is when you start with a set of codes. Based on either research questions or a framework or something else then you take those codes.

Is axial coding inductive or deductive?

Axial coding in grounded theory is the process of relating codes (categories and concepts) to each other, via a combination of inductive and deductive thinking.

How do you create axial code?

Axial coding

  1. Find connections and relationships between code. Now that you have a set of codes, identify connections between them. …
  2. Aggregate and condense codes into broader categories. Determine broader categories that make connections between codes.


What is axial data?

Observations on axes which lack information on the direction of propagation are referred to as axial data. Such data are often encountered in enviromental sciences, e.g. observations on propagations of cracks or on faults in mining walls.

What is closed coding?

What is closed coding? • Identifying and marking interesting items using a pre‐established coding scheme • Usually done on video, but could be transcripts, audio, etc.

What are the types of coding?

There are four types of coding:

  • Data compression (or source coding)
  • Error control (or channel coding)
  • Cryptographic coding.
  • Line coding.


Are open ended questions coded?

Open-ended survey questions often provide the most useful insights, but if you are dealing with hundreds or thousands of answers, summarising them will give you the biggest headache. The answer lies in coding open-ended questions. This means assigning one or more categories (also called codes) to each response.

What is deductive and inductive coding?

Before coding, you should decide if you want to start off with a set of codes and stick with them (deductive coding), come up with the codes as you read what you see in your data (inductive), or take a combination approach.

What is the difference between deductive and inductive coding in qualitative analysis?

The main difference between inductive and deductive approaches to research is that whilst a deductive approach is aimed and testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data.

Is qualitative inductive or deductive?

In research, the two main types of analysis typically used are quantitative (deductive) and qualitative (inductive).

What is the difference between inductive and deductive research?

The main difference between inductive and deductive reasoning is that inductive reasoning aims at developing a theory while deductive reasoning aims at testing an existing theory. Inductive reasoning moves from specific observations to broad generalizations, and deductive reasoning the other way around.

What is inductive coding?

Inductive coding refers to a data analysis process whereby the researcher reads and interprets raw textual data to develop concepts, themes or a process model through interpretations based on data (Thomas 2006; Boyatzis 1998; Corbin and Strauss 1990).

What is an example of inductive research?

For example: In the past, ducks have always come to our pond. Therefore, the ducks will come to our pond this summer. These types of inductive reasoning work in arguments and in making a hypothesis in mathematics or science.

What is inductive approach in qualitative research?

The inductive approach is a systematic procedure for analyzing qualitative data in which the analysis is likely to be guided by specific evaluation objectives.

What is deductive approach in qualitative research?

Deductive, or a priori, analysis generally means applying theory to the data to test the theory. It’s a kind of “top-down” approach to data analysis. In qualitative analysis, this often means applying predetermined codes to the data.

Can deductive approach be used in qualitative research?

While inductive and deductive approaches to research seem quite different, they can actually be rather complementary and thus deductive approach can be used in qualitative research analysis. In some cases, researchers will plan for their research to include multiple components, one inductive and the other deductive.